Edinburgh c1580 from “Civitates orbis terrarum” by George Baum
The city is shown from an aerial vantage point looking north. The Nor’ Loch which was drained in 1759 to create Princes Street Gardens is visible as are the High Street and the Cowgate. You can also make out the city boundaries as defined by the Flodden Wall - named after the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. The section which cuts across the High Street is still known as the World’s End corner today. Edinburgh was still prone to the odd invasion by the English with one of the most devastating taking place in 1544, so the presence of such an extensive fortification was of absolute necessity.